Tuesday, 22 June 2010

The Constitution of India

The Constitution of India was enforced by the constituent assembly on 26th of November, 1949.
I am reproducing the Preamble of the constitution of India here for reference:

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly
resolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGN
to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual
and the 2[unity and integrity of the Nation];

sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT,

1 Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 2, for “SOVEREIGN
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
2 Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for “unity of the Nation” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).

The constitution of India consists of 395 articles (many of which are repealed - listed in the 395th article) divided into 22 parts. In addition it consists of 12 schedules and 2 appendices. There have been 94 amendments to the constitution since its inception. The last one (94th Amendment) was through the Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006.
The complete text of the Constitution can be obtained from the GoI website at http://india.gov.in/govt/constitutions_india.php .
For easy reading online without downloading the files, i've created an online version which can be read from https://docs.google.com/fileview?id=0B4mYDYyBBNkkMDI1YWE0ZTMtMDRjNS00ZDU2LThmZWYtNjZmNjBkZWE1NGE3&hl=en

The various parts of the constitution are
  • Part I  - Union and its Territory
  • Part II - Citizenship.
  • Part III - Fundamental Rights
  • Part IV - Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties.
  • Part V - The Union.
  • Part VI - The States.
  • Part VII - States in the B part of the First schedule (Repealed).
  • Part VIII - The Union Territories
  • Part IX - Panchayat system and Municipalities.
  • Part X - The scheduled and Tribal Areas
  • Part XI - Relations between the Union and the States.
  • Part XII - Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
  • Part XIII - Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
  • Part XIV - Services Under the Union, the States and Tribunals
  • Part XV - Elections
  • Part XVI - Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
  • Part XVII - Languages
  • Part XVIII - Emergency Provisions
  • Part XIX - Miscellaneous
  • Part XX - Amendment of the Constitution
  • Part XXI - Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
  • Part XXII - Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals
The 12 schedules of the constitution are
  • First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) — States and Union Territories  – This lists the states and territories on of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that change.
  • Second Schedule (Articles 59, 65, 75, 97, 125, 148, 158, 164, 186 and 221) — Emoluments for High-Level Officials  – This lists the salaries of officials holding public office, judges, and Controller and Auditor-General of India.
  • Third Schedule (Articles 75, 99, 124, 148, 164, 188 and 219) — Forms of Oaths  – This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials and judges.
  • Fourth Schedule (Articles 4 and 80)  – This details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory.
  • Fifth Schedule (Article 244)  – This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
  • Sixth Schedule (Articles 244 and 275)— Provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam,Meghalaya,Tripura,,Mizoram.
  • Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — The union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
  • Eighth Schedule (Articles 344 and 351) — The official languages.
  • Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) - This covers land and tenure reforms; the accession of Sikkim with India. It may be reviewed by the courts[17].
  • Tenth Schedule (Articles 102 and 191) — "Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures.
  • Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) — Panchayat Raj (rural local government).
  • Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government).


  1. We will first start with the preamble. If you feel any changes can be made to the preamble, please comment. For example, you may feel that India no longer needs to be a socialist country, so we can further discuss that and change it.

  2. I think we can also remove "EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all"
    we can write "to promote EQUALITY among all" because I think we don't have equality of status and opportunity
    we need to have Equality not only in status and opportunity but also in Education(For ex. Govt schools and private schools), Work(For Ex. blue-white collar jobs) and many more things, so there should be "Equality in every possible aspect of life". We are assuming that we are not equal right now and that is why it should be amended to "to promote EQUALITY among all"